Cities in a Time of Global Emergencies

CITIES IN A TIME OF GLOBAL

EMERGENCIES Can smart cities help? Cities in a time of global emergencies

Edited by Arturo Bris

Christos Cabolis Chan Heng Chee Bruno Lanvin

CITIES IN A TIME

OF GLOBAL EMERGENCIES

Can smart cities help?

SCO SMART CITY OBSERVATORY

Chemin de Bellerive 23 P.O. Box 915 CH – 1001 Lausanne Switzerland Tel: +41 21 618 01 11 – Fax: +41 21 618 07 07 www.imd.org

Copyright © 2021 IMD – International Institute for Management Development. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of IMD. ISBN: 978-2-940485-49-9 ISBN e-pub: 978-2-940485-48-2

Cities in a time of global emergencies iii

IMD WORLD COMPETITIVENESS CENTER

For more than 30 years the IMDWorld Competitiveness Center has pioneered research on how countries and companies compete to lay the foundation for sustainable value creation. The competitiveness of nations is probably one of the most significant developments in modern management and IMD is committed to leading the field.

IMD World Competitiveness Center team: Professor Arturo Bris Director Christos Cabolis

Chief Economist and Head of Operations President, IMD-WCC Smart City Observatory Data Research and Online Services Specialist Order and Sales Administrator Research Projects Associate Manager Senior Economist

Dr Bruno Lanvin José Caballero Madeleine Hediger Catherine Jobin William Milner Marco Pistis Maryam Zargari Authors: José Caballero Fabian Grimm

Research Specialist Research Specialist

Santiago Vienna

Abdulrahman Ibrahim, Sandra Czich, Ha-Chun Kwan, Rosario Osobase

Madinah

Bruno Lanvin Marco Pistis

Kigali

Tel Aviv-Yafo

Editor: Vivien Stone, Etchingham, UK

Designer: Yves Balibouse, BBH Solutions Visuelles SNC, Vevey, Switzerland

Cities in a time of global emergencies iv

LEE KUAN YEW CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE CITIES, SUTD

The Lee Kuan Yew Centre for Innovative Cities is a multi-disciplinary research center in the Singapore University of Technology and Design. It focuses on research that stimulates thinking and knowledge on the critical issues of cities, bringing together technology, design and policy to develop solutions for effective urbanization. The center has diverse research teams consisting of urban planners, geographers, sociologists, economists, political scientists, engineers and anthropologists working on a variety of challenging future-oriented policy programs. It collaborates with industry, business and governments through joint projects, conferences and knowledge events to share research findings and drive innovation. The center has a vision to educate and mature leaders, researchers and urbanologists who are multi-disciplinary, technologically grounded and, above all, humanists – because cities are for people.

Lee Kuan Yew Centre for Innovative Cities team: Professor Chan Heng Chee

Chair (September 2012–14 June 2021; Professor 15 June 2021–)

Poon King Wang

Director

Sree Kumar

Adjunct Senior Fellow

Authors: Jose Rafael Martinez Garcia, Irna Nurlina Masron Devesh Narayanan, Norakmal Hakim bin Norhashim

Manila Mumbai Shanghai

Harvey Neo

Winston Yap Yu Ming, Norakmal Hakim bin Norhashim

Tokyo

Belinda Yuen, Tan Zining

Melbourne

Cities in a time of global emergencies v

CONTENTS Foreword. ........................................................................................................ ix Preface............................................................................................................. xi Introduction...................................................................................................... 1 Definitions and approach . ............................................................................ 1 What did we learn from these 10 smart cities? . ........................................... 2 Next steps ..................................................................................................... 5 References..................................................................................................... 7 9 An African window of opportunities.............................................................. 11 1. Background information, history and context........................................ 11 2. The basic principles and axes of Kigali’s smart city strategy. ............... 12 3. From theoretical design to economic and social realities . .................... 14 4. An African ambition, and the road ahead............................................... 17 References................................................................................................... 20 21 Transforming the Enlightened City into a smart city..................................... 23 1. Introduction............................................................................................ 23 2. Changing winds...................................................................................... 24 3. Holy inspiration...................................................................................... 26 4. The quest for funds................................................................................. 27 5. Searching for meaning. .......................................................................... 28 6. Pinch points of the Enlightened City...................................................... 30 7. Innovation knocks at the door................................................................ 32 8. The best is yet to come........................................................................... 34 References................................................................................................... 38 Kigali Madinah

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Manila 39 Imagining the indigenous smart megacity...................................................... 41 1. Background. ........................................................................................... 41 2. Urban challenges and the two realities of “smart” in Manila. ............... 43 3. Smart urban planning for sustainability in Manila: Climate change, and security and COVID-19................................................................... 48 4. Smart Manila: Challenges, questions and reflections for the future. ..... 55 References .................................................................................................. 57 61 A people-first design for a liveable city. ........................................................ 63 1. Background. ........................................................................................... 63 2. Smart city action..................................................................................... 63 3. Smart sustainability................................................................................ 65 4. Smart liveability..................................................................................... 67 5. Outsmart COVID-19.............................................................................. 70 6. Conclusion ............................................................................................. 72 References................................................................................................... 75 77 Smart planning in polycentric arrangements: From conflict to collaboration.79 1. Background. ........................................................................................... 79 2. Sustainable development in Mumbai..................................................... 80 3. Smart planning in Mumbai..................................................................... 88 4. Challenges of polycentricity left behind by smart planning. ................. 95 5. Moving forward: Technology as a shared commons.............................. 96 6. Conclusion.............................................................................................. 97 References................................................................................................... 99 Melbourne Mumbai

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Santiago 103 A project in a socio-economically fragmented city...................................... 105 1. Introduction.......................................................................................... 105 2. Santiago’s smart city initiatives............................................................ 107 3. Regional Strategic Program: Smart city Santiago................................ 110 4. Smart city Santiago: Achievements...................................................... 115 5. Santiago in the IMD-SUTD Smart City Index..................................... 121 6. Concluding remarks. ............................................................................ 123 References................................................................................................. 127 129 The smart and paradigmatic city of China. .................................................. 131 1. Introduction.......................................................................................... 131 2. Shanghai: Paradigmatic city................................................................. 131 3. Shanghai smart city plans (2011–2020)............................................... 132 4. “Smart City Shanghai” sectors ............................................................ 135 5. “Smart City Shanghai” and COVID-19. .............................................. 140 6. Conclusion............................................................................................ 141 References................................................................................................. 143 145 Resilience and smartness in the “nonstop” city............................................ 147 1. Introduction.......................................................................................... 147 2. Tel Aviv City Vision and Smart City initiative..................................... 149 3. Tel Aviv-Yafo in the IMD-SUTD Smart City Index. ........................... 164 4. Conclusions.......................................................................................... 168 References................................................................................................. 170 Shanghai Tel Aviv-Yafo

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Tokyo 173 Pushing frontiers, planning for Society 5.0.................................................. 175 1. Background . ........................................................................................ 175 2. Tokyo’s planning paradigm and smart movement. .............................. 176 3. Smart planning for sustainability and resilience. ................................. 178 4. Smart planning for public health emergencies: COVID-19, a decentralized national priority........................................................... 191 5. Conclusion............................................................................................ 194 References................................................................................................. 196 199 A smart city at the heart of Europe............................................................... 201 1. Introduction.......................................................................................... 201 2. Smart City Vienna Framework Strategy (SCWR). .............................. 206 3. Citizen perception and policy alignment.............................................. 217 4. Real-life impacts of the Smart City Vienna Framework Strategy........ 232 5. Conclusion............................................................................................ 241 References................................................................................................. 244 Vienna

Cities in a time of global emergencies ix

FOREWORD This is the second volume of smart city case studies jointly produced by IMD and SUTD. In the short time that separated the publication of the first volume (Sixteen Shades of Smart ) in 2019, and the launch of this new volume, the world has met with an unprecedented crisis, ushered in by the rapid spread of the COVID-19 virus. All our organizations have been deeply shaken by the consequences of reduced activity levels, and the need to protect the safety of our employees, clients and fellow citizens. We know that many of the new habits and practices we had to adopt will stay with us in the longer term, contributing to defining a new normal in the way we work, learn, teach and interact with each other. There is no doubt that our economies, and to a large extent our societies, will be different in the post-COVID-19 world that is taking shape before our eyes. We shall work differently, learn differently, play and live differently. The online tools that we started to use extensively, the social and working practices that we became used to, and the new organizational and business models that we started to explore will likely be with us for a long time. We also know that the crisis has not relegated global concerns to a secondary level: climate change, growing inequalities, and the resumption of cooperative international relations remain pressing issues. This is the context in which cities will have critical roles to play. IMD and SUTD are hence very proud of having had the opportunity to collaborate in that space, and to have highlighted – before the pandemic even started – some of the key principles that will undoubtedly guide smart city designers, managers and citizens in the post-COVID-19 world: how can human-centric cities help us shape tomorrow’s world in a more resilient, a more innovative, and a more cooperative fashion?

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The present volume contains ten case studies produced by the Lee Kuan Yew Centre for Innovative Cities at SUTD (covering Asia and the Pacific), and the Smart City Observatory, under IMD’s World Competitiveness Center (covering other parts of the world). As was the case when we published the first volume in this series, we learned a lot as institutions about cooperating and researching jointly. We hope that readers too will gain useful insights into the future shaping of our cities.

Professor Chong Tow Chong President International Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD)

Professor Jean-François Manzoni President International Institute for Management Development (IMD)

Cities in a time of global emergencies xi

PREFACE As underlined by our respective presidents in the foreword, the pandemic has not relegated pre-existing long-term concerns to the backburner of global challenges. Smart cities are indeed living evidence that improving our collective ability to become more resilient to pandemics is highly correlated with our determination and resolve to fight climate change. This high level of interdependence between two apparently separate sets of issues is becoming clear when one considers how the global disruption in travel and trade has affected the daily lives of billions of citizens round the world. It is even more striking when one looks at how technology and innovation (in addition to swift and massive actions from governments) have helped us weather the storm, or at least mitigate its effect, especially for the most vulnerable. Smart cities are, typically, where people, technology and innovation meet and attempt to shape a common, desirable future. But there are many ways to be smart. Casting the base of a more environmentally supportive urban future can be done in more than one way. Most smart cities are still in a phase of trial and error in this respect, and this is why comparative studies and exchanges of experiences among cities are so important. The pandemic has played the role of an accelerator in this regard, forcing cities mayors and decision-makers to adopt emergency measures when their citizens’ lives were at stake. This second book in the IMD/SUTD series of smart city case studies offers a timely opportunity to assess how the strategies and approaches pursued by smart cities have been perceived by the populations involved. In this context, the interdependence between health resilience on the one hand and longer term efforts to fight climate change on another should be a core concern. Clearly, there is no “cookie cutter approach” that smart cities should be ready to adopt and follow to become more people-centric and more climate-friendly. But the diversity of the choices made, and the variety and imagination with which they have been implemented by cities around the world is a rich source of information and experience, that no city (smart or not) can afford to ignore. What will the world look like in 20 years from now? Is the trend towards urbanization going to take a different shape, and progress at a different speed? Will we witness a redefinition of urban spaces and a redistribution of responsibilities across urban and rural geographies? It is probably too early to answer such questions with the precision we would all hope for. However, one thing at least is clear: in all parts of the world, the pandemic has played the role of a formidable accelerator for digital transformation, while environmental concerns have been even more present in the thinking of our decision-makers. At city level, this means that smart cities will be the object of increased scrutiny and attention.

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In this second book, we examined the specific context of each city and how they chose to respond to the problems they faced, within the limits of their own technological capabilities and circumstances. Some did better than others, but all brought additional knowledge and experience to the complex equation of the future of cities. What do we glean from the ten studies about governance of the smart city and how each city applied smartness or what they thought was smart? The identification of commonalities and differences is at the core of this book. They are addressed in its first chapter. We hope that you enjoy reading it. We look forward to your feedback.

Professor Chan Heng Chee Chair (September 2012–14 June 2021; Professor 15 June 2021–) Lee Kuan Yew Centre for Innovative Cities

Dr Bruno Lanvin President IMD-WCC Smart City Observatory

Cities in a time of global emergencies 1

INTRODUCTION

Arturo Bris, Christos Cabolis, Bruno Lanvin

This is the second volume of smart city case studies produced by IMD and SUTD, after Sixteen Shades of Smart , published in 2019. It includes 10 case studies, of which half – produced by SUTD – are on cities in the Asia-Pacific region (Manila, Melbourne, Mumbai, Shanghai, Tokyo). The other five (Kigali, Madinah, Santiago, Tel-Aviv, Vienna) were produced by IMD. This time, again, we tried to provide a wide range of experiences from around the world, and to gather contextual information from cities representing various stages of achievement and sophistication along the route of smart cities development. In doing so, we had to take account of the exceptional developments that have occurred over the last two years, as the COVID-19 virus spread and mutated around the world. Simultaneously, the same cities were also facing increasing pressure from their citizens to address environmental concerns; as the effects of climate change were becoming more apparent globally. At the same time other concerns (identified in both Sixteen Shades of Smart and the first three editions of the IMD-SUTD Smart City Index) had not diminished in intensity or urgency, including the cost of affordable housing, traffic congestion, waste management, access to basic services, and safety, to name but a few. The combination of health and climate emergencies attracted the energy and attention of many city leaders around the world. This is why this second volume focuses on “Cities in a time of global emergencies”, and attempts to identify the lessons we can draw from the exceptional experience of the last two years. Definitions and approach The definition of the smart city we employ is the one used in all our research: an urban setting that applies technology to enhance the benefits and diminish the shortcomings of urbanization for its citizens. We followRazaghi and Finger (2018) and identify cities as socio-technical systems. In such a framework technology can improve the quality as well as the number of goods and services available. Thus, we effectively broaden out from a limited definition where a “city” is identified as smart by examining only one dimension, be this “sustainable”, “environmentally friendly” or “intelligent”. While the IMD-SUTD approach remains to identify, analyze and promote ways in which smart cities can be more human-centric (as opposed to technology driven), the key priority areas on which we tried to build these case studies largely remain the ones

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identified in the first volume. 1 These priorities also correspond to the categories used in the IMD-SUTD Smart City Index, 2 namely, health and safety, mobility, activities, opportunities, and governance. However, in carrying out the 10 case studies included here, special attention was paid to the ways in which smart cities are addressing the joint emergencies of climate change and COVID-19. The geographic diversity of the cities studied can be seen in Figure 1 . In addition, we study a diverse group of cities with respect to size as outlined in Table 1 . From Kigali, the capital of Rwanda with 1.2 million people, to Tokyo, the capital of Japan with 37.4 million people, the challenges of each of these urban settings are quite different. Yet, the objective of all the city officials is the same: to improve the quality of the lives of their residents.

Figure 1 – Location of the 10 cities covered

VIENNA

TOKYO

TEL AVIV

SHANGHAI

MADINAH

MUMBAI

MANILA

KIGALI

SANTIAGO

MELBOURNE

What did we learn from these 10 smart cities?

Seven key lessons emerge from this second set of case studies: • The “pioneers” (i.e. those cities with already more than a few years’ practice as “smart cities”) have adjusted their strategies. • Top-down or bottom-up: experimentation goes on. • COVID-19 has highlighted complexities in governance. • Smart cities address climate and health resilience as one single endeavor. • Smart cities can be places of greater disparities.

1 Bris and al. (2019). 2 https://www.imd.org/news/updates/data-shows-effects-of-covid-and-climate-change-on-citizens-perceptions-of-how-smart-their- cities-are/

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• Economic dimensions are coming to the fore. • Culture, history and values remain assets in designing and developing smart cities.

Table 1 – Populations of the 10 cities covered (broad city area)

Cities Kigali Manila

Countries

Population 1,170,000 13,920,000 1,490,000 4,970,000 20,410,000 6,770,000 27,060,000 4,180,000 37,390,000 1,930,000

Rwanda

Philippines Saudi Arabia

Madinah

Melbourne Mumbai Santiago Shanghai

Australia

India Chile China Israel Japan

Tel Aviv Tokyo Vienna

Austria

Source: Smart City Index. Note: In individual chapters population figures may vary from those in the table above as they may have been derived from alternative sources.

The “pioneers” have adjusted their strategies. We see a “new wave” forming as a certain number of smart cities are entering a “second age” and draw lessons from their initial trials and errors, and adjust their strategies. Among the 10 cities covered in this second volume, several have found themselves in that position and radically modified their strategies. Vienna, Melbourne, Tokyo and Shanghai (now on its fourth smart city plan) can be considered part of that group. The experience of those “pioneers” can be of high value for those younger smart cities still in their “first age”. Top-down or bottom-up: experimentation goes on. A major issue in this context seems to be whether a centralized or top-down approach (in which a city’s leadership makes major decisions) is to be preferred to a decentralized or bottom-up one (in which citizens and stakeholders are expected to make the key choices and steer efforts). Here, the experience of the cities covered seems to be rather diverse, and all cities have been eager to offer a fair chance to both approaches. Mumbai is clearly moving from a centralized approach to a more distributed (polycentric) one. Tokyo is following an opposite path, after realizing the limits and disadvantages of multiple bottom-up initiatives. COVID-19 has highlighted complexities in governance. One of the issues that COVID-19 made more acute is that of the multiplicity of governance levels in which a smart city needs to operate. As the pandemic started to spread, and emergency measures had to be taken, conflicts sometimes emerged between decisions made at city level, those made at provincial/state levels, and finally the laws and regulations

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adopted at national level. In the cities that were particularly hurt by the pandemic (e.g. Mumbai), where much was left to local initiatives – for example, facing the scarcity of personal protective equipment, oxygen and vaccines – being a smart city did not help much. In others, where a strong technological culture existed, with high penetration rates for smart phones and data sharing (e.g. Tokyo or Tel Aviv), tracking applications made a significant difference. Technology and good infrastructure also made it relatively easy to accompany lockdown policies with enhanced abilities to work from home (e.g. in Melbourne). Smart cities address climate and health resilience as one single endeavor. The availability of smart solutions to face COVID-19 emergencies also raised new initiatives and efforts to address climate-related emergencies. The emergence of “resilience” as a priority for smart cities encouraged a simultaneous and convergent treatment of both environmental and health issues. This interdependence also became clearer to citizens and decision-makers. Air quality, in particular, grew in importance among the concerns of citizens, not just as a key ingredient of their quality of life, but as a necessary condition for their good health. Megalopolises in Asia (Mumbai, Shanghai, Tokyo) were particularly affected by this trend. Smart cities can be places of greater disparities. A new concern (also aggravated by COVID-19) has emerged among a majority of the cities covered in this volume, which can be summarized as follows: are the policies and strategies adopted to make our cities smarter (and to address environmental and health emergencies) reducing or broadening existing disparities among citizens? Some of the case studies presented here offer a very honest (and pessimistic) assessment in this regard. In Santiago, as well as in Mumbai and Manila, inequalities have increased, and solidarity mechanisms weakened. Gated communities, in particular, show how smart cities can illustrate strong disparities vis-à-vis safety, for example. Another concern is that of a potential “gender bias” in the ways in which COVID-19 has affected urban communities, as women have often been under greater pressure to give up their professional careers as the burden of other tasks increased due to the crisis. This is a phenomenon that will deserve critical attention in the years to come, both from the point of view of wage disparities, but also of career opportunities. Economic dimensions are coming to the fore. By and large, all the cities covered in this volume pay particular importance to the economic dimensions of building and governing a smart city. All seem to have identified clear advantages in fostering private-public partnerships (PPPs) (Shanghai, Madinah, Manila, Kigali, Tokyo). As already underlined in the 2021 edition of the IMD-SUTD Smart City Index, the cost of affordable housing remains the number one concern in the cities covered, as globally. This is a dimension that pervades many other aspects of smart cities: if affordable housing can only be found at a significant distance from workplaces, mobility patterns (and air quality) will be affected, for example. Lockdown measures and teleworking policies adopted during COVID-19 highlighted the interdependence of such dimensions. To some extent such measures acted as pathfinders to possible

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ways of better using available space in city centers, e.g. through shared workspaces or mixed use of existing facilities. 3 Culture, history and values remain assets in designing and developing smart cities. Finally, shared lessons emerge around the critical importance of local leadership as a source of longer term vision for cities. Looking 10 or 20 years into the future requires an ability to anticipate the kind of solutions that technology will be able to offer; but a human-centric smart city must do so in full respect of its own culture, history and values. The examples of Madinah (and how the city mobilized its technology resources to better manage pilgrim crowds during Ramadan and the Hajj), but also those of Tokyo and Santiago (able to mitigate the consequences of frequent seismic activity) or Kigali (to rebuild an inclusive society after a cruel civil war, and offering a model for the African continent) all tell us very different stories of how smart cities can be built and improved. They also tell us how imagination, good governance and careful monitoring can help improve the impact of smart cities on the lives of their citizens, and contribute to a better, safer and more resilient world. Next steps By combining the results of the 2021 edition of the IMD-SUTD Smart City Index on one hand, and the lessons described above, stemming from the 10 case studies included in this volume, we can identify five key axes along which a “lovable and liveable smart city” can be defined. Each offers a fertile avenue for further research, and continuing monitoring. They can be summarized as follows. 1. Consolidating the economic, social, health and environmental sustainability of smart cities. In all parts of the world, the pandemic has heightened citizens’ concerns on all of these dimensions of sustainability. Yet, economic concerns (especially about affordable housing) remain the aspect on which all of the cities covered by the index and this book’s case studies agree. What is the proper economic and business model for a smart city? Further assessments of the experience acquired with regard to PPPs, online and transparent procurement processes, as well as with special economic zones and innovation districts would certainly help provide some answers. Smart cities will also have key roles to play in shaping the post-COVID-19 recovery process. As sizeable economic packages start to be finalized and adopted around the world, their translation at the local level (through infrastructure spending and support to environmentally sound urban initiatives and to the overall acceleration of digital transformation) will largely contribute to determine the shape and pace of the recovery process. 2. Exploring innovative ways to measure and monitor the performance and impact of smart cities. The IMD-SUTDSmart City Index focuses on perceptions. Its companion books of case studies bring additional (contextual) evidence about

3 On the topic of the possible evolution of city centers, see Glaeser and Cutler (2021).

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some of the dimensions of smart cities that are not properly measured by the index. All over the world many smart cities are experimenting with new ways of measuring their performance and monitoring their progress along their own strategic avenues. 4 It is important to collect such experiences and quantify them in ways that can enhance the ability of smart cities to exchange and build on them. Both efforts should go hand in hand: encouraging exchange of experience among cities, and developing metrics to stimulate action on the ground. 3. Improving governance in smart cities and making them more agile. The pandemic showed how the superior agility of some cities allowed them to react more rapidly – and sometimes more efficiently – than their respective nation states. But the last two years also underlined the key roles that can only be played by central authorities, such as on health measures or fiscal exceptions and reliance on external debt capabilities. Some smart cities have been finding their way between top-down and bottom-up approaches. Who should decide on what, how and when? What would be an ideal articulation of local power and central power? Can smart cities be a testbed for post-COVID-19 governance? These will remain key questions for the smart cities of tomorrow. 4. Fully leveraging the acceleration of digital transformation by increasing smart cities’ responsiveness both to their citizens’ needs and to the new opportunities created by technological innovations. Cities are at the forefront of our collective fight against global emergencies. Smart cities are the ideal testbed to assess how technology can help make our lives better and more sustainable, while strengthening our collective ability to address current and future emergencies. Resilience and responsiveness are hence two sides of the same coin. Since, however, the engagement of citizens remains the key ingredient for sustainable changes in smart cities, human-centric design and management will continue to be distinctive traits of successful smart cities. Various approaches will continue to prevail in this regard, reflecting the choices but also the culture, history, demography and geography of individual cities. We need to keep track of these approaches, identify their commonalities and extract the key ingredients of their success. 5. Strengthening the human and talent base of smart cities. The pandemic also redefined talent mobility. The combination of travel restrictions and ubiquitous online collaborative tools gave a clear advantage to well-connected places like smart cities. The same processes also stressed the importance and value of diversity in the workplace: in a virtual environment, working with a collaborator from a nearby city is not very different from working with an expert from another continent. Designing and managing the human-centric smart cities of tomorrow will require multiple combinations of a wide array of talents and competencies: architects, urban designers, city managers, but

4 For example, recent efforts to distill various efforts to a common time-based scale, e.g. around “20-minute neighborhoods” (https://www.moreno-web.net/portland-plan-20-minute-neighborhoods/) offer many fertile perspectives in that regard.

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also software engineers, social scientists, historians, lawyers, psychiatrists and artists, to name a few. How to attract them, and help them work together? How will such efforts combine with other goals such as inclusion and social diversity? Another set of key issues awaits smart city experts and leaders. There are many reasons to consider that the future of smart cities will be largely defined along these five dimensions. In essence, tomorrow’s smart city will need to be: S ustainable: environmentally, but also economically. M easurable: embedded indicators should allow constant monitoring. A gile: good governance can benefit from a superior ability to change course. R esponsive: seizing technological opportunities to serve citizens better. T alented: a culturally diverse population is vital to promote inclusive prosperity. Stimulating the exchange of experiences is what this book is about. Subsequent volumes will explore other cities, always with the purpose to be geographically diversified, and to consider the respective situations, constraints and strategies of smart cities at all levels of development and sophistication.

References

Bris, A., C. Cabolis, H. C. Chan, and B. Lanvin, Editors. “Sixteen Shades of Smart: How Cities Can Shape Their Own Future.” Lausanne: IMD, 2019. IMD and SUTD Smart City Index (https://www.imd.org/smart-city-observatory/home/#_smartCity). Glaeser, E., and D. Cutler. “Survival of the City: Living and Thriving in an Age of Isolation.” New York: Penguin Press, 2021. Razaghi, M., and M. Finger, M. “Smart Governance for Smart Cities.” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 106, No. 4, 2018: 680–689.

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